Western military support has been critical to Ukraine’s success on the battlefield since Russia invaded the country on Feb. 24 last year.
While European Union and NATO member states have taken the lead in supporting Kyiv militarily, other countries, most notably those closely allied with the US, have also made significant contributions to Ukraine’s war efforts.
Ukrainian President Volodymyr Zelenskyy, as well as other senior officials, continue to push for more weapons in order to defend the country’s eastern regions.
Zelenskyy and his administration have also been vocal about the need for air defense systems against Russian attacks on critical infrastructure in Ukraine, which have intensified since the approach of winter.
Russian President Vladimir Putin says Moscow’s strikes on certain Ukrainian targets are “a forced and inevitable response” to Kyiv’s “provocations.”
He has called out Western countries for “pumping the Kyiv regime with weapons and training the Ukrainian military.”
Washington has been Ukraine’s staunchest military partner since the start of the war.
In a press briefing on Dec. 21, Secretary of State Antony Blinken said Washington’s total military assistance to Ukraine had reached $21.9 billion since the beginning of the Biden administration.
The US State Department indicated in a fact sheet that the country has provided vast quantities of military equipment, weapons and ammunition as well as defense systems.
These included over 1,600 Stinger anti-aircraft systems, over 8,500 Javelin anti-armor systems, over 700 Switchblade Tactical Unmanned Aerial Systems, 142 155mm Howitzers, 36 105mm Howitzers, eight NASAMS air defense systems, 20 Mi-17 helicopters and 45 T-72B tanks.
With President Zelenskyy’s visit to Washington on Dec. 21, which was his first overseas foreign visit since the start of the war, the US also announced that Patriot missile defense systems would be given to Ukraine.
The first of the Patriot missile defense systems will be deployed soon, according to Ukrainian Foreign Minister Dmytro Kuleba.
The US Department of Defense also announced on Friday that it will be delivering Bradley fighting vehicles to Ukraine in the near future.
Britain is the second largest provider of military aid to Ukraine in 2022 behind the US with £2.3 billion ($2.78 billion) having been given to Kyiv, according to a press release from the UK government on Dec. 30.
“The UK has also recently provided a significant package of air defense systems, including more than 1,000 air anti-air missiles and 125 anti-aircraft guns, to defend Ukraine against Russian strikes on its cities and infrastructure,” it said.
It noted that the UK has supplied Ukraine with Stormer armored vehicles and thousands of anti-air missiles, including at least 6,000 Starsteaks and AMRAAMs as well as an unspecified number of maritime Brimstone missiles.
The UK has also provided military training to more than 11,000 Ukrainian soldiers and aims to train up to 20,000 in 2023.
A report released in November by the UK parliament noted that London has also provided over 200,000 items of non-lethal aid, including body armor, helmets, night vision equipment, medical equipment and winter clothing, in addition to confirming Defense Ministry statements that three retired Westland Sea King search and rescue helicopters had been delivered to Ukraine.
Downing Street says it is committed to sustain the same level of military funding to Ukraine in 2023.
Initially reluctant, Germany changed course and started sending heavy weapons for it to defend itself.
For 2022, Germany pledged to provide €2 billion ($2.1 billion) worth of arms and equipment to Ukraine from German defense companies.
Berlin's declared deliveries to Ukraine include five MARS II multiple rocket launchers, 500 Stinger anti-aircraft systems, 2,700 Strela anti-aircraft systems, an unspecified number of Marder infantry fighting vehicles and one IRIS-T air defense system.
The government’s website also listed deliveries either planned or currently being executed, including 18 wheeled self-propelled RCH 155 howitzers, seven self-propelled GEPARD anti-aircraft guns, 16 self-propelled Zuzana 2 howitzers and three IRIS-T air defense systems.
France’s total military support for Kyiv and its specifics have not been announced by either party.
Certain deals, however, have been announced, most notably the delivery of three batteries of air defense systems, including two Crotales and one SAMP/T, and two LRU multiple rocket launcher units to Ukraine in November, which came after the delivery of 18 Caesar howitzers.
The SAMP/T air defense missile systems were developed by Thales Group and MBDA France and MBDA Italy.
France says it will also supply Ukraine with AMX 10-RC light battle tanks.
Other weaponry said to have been delivered to Ukraine by France include Mistral air defense systems, as well as MILAN, FGM-148 Javelin and Akeron MP anti-tank guided missile systems.
Canada has committed over CAN$1 billion ($743.5 million) in military assistance to Ukraine since the start of the Ukraine war, according to government figures.
The largest chunk of this funding came during the latest G-20 summit in Bali, Indonesia, during which Prime Minister Justin Trudeau announced CAN$500 million ($371.7 million) in additional military assistance to war-torn Ukraine.
Canadian military aid to Ukraine has been in terms of equipment and weaponry, with Ottawa notably announcing the contribution of an unspecified number of M777 howitzers and associated ammunition, at least 100 Carl Gustav M2 recoilless rifles, up to 4,500 M72 rocket launchers and more than 50 Wescam MX-15D UAV sensors.
In April, Defense Minister Anita Anand confirmed that the Canadian Armed Forces are training Ukrainian forces on the use of M777 howitzers.
According to a statement by the Ukrainian Defense Ministry, Belgium transferred a total of €45 million worth of support to Ukraine, prior to a new aid package of €12 million announced by Belgian Defense Minister Ludivine Dedonder in September.
At the start of the Ukraine war, Belgium provided 200 M72 LAW anti-tank weapons and 5,000 FN FNC assault rifles.
"Belgium was one of the first countries to provide military aid to Ukraine. We will continue to do so – fuel, machine guns, self-propelled guns, etc.," Belgian Prime Minister Alexander De Croo said during a visit to Kyiv on Nov. 26.
Dutch Defense Minister Kajsa Ollongren said in a letter to the Dutch parliament last month that the Netherlands has provided Ukraine with €987 million in military aid, which encompasses €697 million in material assistance.
The assistance consists of ammunition, equipment and weaponry including 200 Stinger missiles, 50 FIM-92 Stinger launchers, 50 DM72A1 anti-tank rounds, €15 million worth of AMRAAM missiles and an unspecified amount of Harpoon missiles.
The Netherlands, the US and the Czech Republic also delivered 90 T-72 tanks to Ukraine as part of a wider military support package worth €120 million in heavy equipment, according to Ollongren.
The letter also noted contributions of €45 million for commercially acquired goods and a contribution of €100 million for the International Fund for Ukraine, an initiative established during a donor conference in the Danish capital Copenhagen in August which expanded to also finance military training and equipment for Kyiv.
“The Netherlands contributes €25 million to the NATO Ukraine Comprehensive Assistance Package (UCAP), from which non-lethal support such as fuel, medical facilities, winter equipment and drone jammers is funded,” the letter added.
At the start of the war, Greece provided Ukraine with two C-130 military transport aircraft.
In late May, Greece agreed with Germany to send older BMP-1 armored combat vehicles to Ukraine from its own stock. Berlin, in return, will deliver newer Marder 1A3s to Athens.
Greece has also been declaring its readiness to send S-300 air defense systems from Crete to Ukraine, to which Russia said it would view the move as a “hostile” action towards Moscow.
According to the Foreign Ministry, Finland’s support to Ukraine in 2022 totaled nearly €300 million, around €200 million of which consisted of material assistance related to defense and other material assistance.
The Finnish Defense Ministry in August said it would send 20 service personnel to the UK to take part in a training program for the Ukrainian Armed Forces.
Initial transfers of equipment to Ukraine include 2,000 helmets and bulletproof vests, while 11 military aid packages have been sent since February, the contents of which have not been announced officially.
In November, Estonian Defense Minister Kusti Salm said Tallinn sent around €300 million in military aid to Ukraine.
Estonia sent an unspecified number of FH70 howitzers and seven Alvis 4 protected mobility vehicles to Ukraine in May 2022.
At the start of the Ukraine war, nine D-30 howitzers were also delivered to Kyiv.
In the early weeks of the Ukraine war, Spain sent 1,370 Instalaza C-90 anti-tank grenade launchers as well as an unspecified number of light machine guns to Kyiv.
Ukrainian Foreign Minister Dmytro Kuleba announced on Nov. 2 that a package of military aid from Spain which included a battery of the Aspide missile system and ammunition, four Hawk air defense systems, anti-tank missile systems, mortars and munitions would be provided to Ukraine after talks with Spanish officials.
Spanish Defense Minister Margarita Robles said on Nov. 10 that two more Hawk air defense systems would be sent to Kyiv as per the request of her Ukrainian counterpart Oleksii Reznikov, bringing the total amount to six.
In the wake of the war, then-Swedish Foreign Minister Ann Linde said her country would send military aid to Ukraine comprising 5,000 anti-tank weapons, 5,000 helmets, 5,000 body shields and 135,000 field rations, as well as a fund of 500 million Swedish krona ($47.5 million) to the Ukrainian army.
Since then, Sweden has sent eight more military aid packages to Ukraine, with the largest sent in November totaling 3 billion Swedish krona ($287 million), according to Swedish Prime Minister Ulf Kristersson.
While details with regards to the military aid packages have been limited, Ukrainian Defense Minister Oleksii Reznikov said the packages contain air defense systems, ammunition and vehicles as well as personal equipment, notably for the winter months.
Prior to the start of the war, Latvia delivered Stinger anti-aircraft missile systems to Ukraine.
After the start of the war, the Latvian Defense Ministry announced on March 2 that 90 unmanned aircraft donated by Latvian companies were delivered to the Ukrainian Armed Forces.
On Aug. 15, the Ukrainian Defense Ministry said it received two Mi-17 and two Mi-2 helicopters from Latvia.
Latvia has also provided Ukraine with military equipment worth more than €300 million, the speaker of the Latvian parliament said in an interview with Ukrainian media on Dec. 9.
“Now Latvia is one of the foremost countries to provide military assistance to Ukraine. We have provided military assistance, military equipment worth more than €300 million. These are howitzers, drones, as well as other facilities, such as equipment for military personnel,” said Edvards Smiltens.
Smiltens noted that this amount constitutes a third of the country’s military budget, and puts it at the forefront among countries in proportion to GDP volume.
“We obviously understand that this is a battle for freedom and freedom is not given just like that, for free. Ukrainians pay for this with their blood, and we pay only with money, only with support. You are fighting for us as well,” he said.
According to the Lithuanian Defense Ministry, Vilnius’ military assistance to Ukraine is so far comprised of “Stinger air defense systems, anti-armor weapons, tactical vests and helmets, 120mm mortars, small arms, ammunition, thermal imaging equipment, drones, anti-drone equipment, surveillance radars, M113 armored personnel carriers, trucks, and all-terrain vehicles.”
In an interview with reporters on Dec. 6, Lithuanian Defense Minister Arvydas Anusauskas said his country’s military aid to Ukraine amounted to €240 million.
“The Defense Ministry’s budget for 2023 earmarks around €40 million for support to Ukraine, with the necessary items to be purchased from Lithuanian producers,” Anusauskas further said.
Luxembourg’s Defense Ministry announced on Dec. 2 that it provided €75 million in military aid to Ukraine.
“That’s 16% of our 2022 defense budget. We support Ukraine in its right to self-defense,” the ministry said.
It also declared a list of equipment and weaponry transferred to Kyiv, including 28 HMMWV vehicles with 20 12.7mm machine guns.
Other notable equipment and weaponry include 102 NLAW anti-tank weapons, 600 BM 21 multiple rocket launcher missiles, six Primoco One 150 unmanned aerial vehicles, seven Jeep Wrangler military jeeps and 12,500 RPG-7 high explosive anti-tank grenades.
The Norwegian government said on Sept. 30 that it had allocated 3 billion Norwegian kroner ($300.4 million) to militarily support Ukraine in 2022.
“Norway has donated helmets, splinter vests, M72 light anti-tank weapons, M109 self-propelled artillery and ammunition, Mistral air defense, Hellfire missiles, IVECO armored vehicles and night optics. It has also been decided to donate M270 long-range rocket artillery (MLRS),” the statement said.
In a separate article on the Norwegian government’s website, Oslo said it will allocate 1 billion Norwegian kroner ($100 million) to Ukraine for 2023.
“Approximately 700 million kroner of this 1 billion will cover additional donations of military equipment that have taken place in 2022,” it added.
According to the same article, notable military equipment provided by Norway to Ukraine includes 2,000 M72 light anti-armor weapons, 100 Mistral air defense missiles, 22 self-propelled M109 howitzers, 14 Iveco LAV III armored vehicles and close to 160 Hellfire missiles.
In terms of direct military contributions to aid Ukraine, Denmark has donated 2,700 shoulder-launched anti-tank weapons, 2,000 TYR protective vests and 700 hygiene kits.
Separately, on Aug. 11, Danish Prime Minister Mette Frederiksen announced a new comprehensive donation package of approximately 820 million Danish kroner ($117 million) to finance weapons and training.
Frederiksen said 100 million Danish kroner ($14.3 million) from the package will go to support the basic military training of Ukrainian soldiers.
Earlier, the government announced it would send 130 military instructors to join the training of Ukrainian soldiers in the UK.
Immediately after the start of Russia’s war on Ukraine, Italy approved military aid for Kyiv worth €110 million, according to a statement by then-Foreign Minister Luigi Di Maio.
Since then, Italy has approved five substantial military support packages to the defense of Ukraine, inclusive of both lethal and non-lethal equipment based on the needs of Ukraine’s Armed Forces, according to the Italian Foreign Ministry.
Defense Minister Guido Crosetto said in November that discussions are underway by Prime Minister Giorgia Meloni's new government to approve Italy’s sixth military aid package to the country.
On Dec. 1, Rome approved a decree that extends the authorization for the transfer of military equipment, materials and vehicles until Dec. 31, 2023.
Albania, Bulgaria, Croatia, the Czech Republic, Iceland, Ireland, Montenegro, North Macedonia, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia and Slovenia, among others, have also contributed to Ukraine's defense efforts.